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Cresian
Spoken in Flag of Cresia Cresia
Region Cresian System
Ethnicity Cresii
Language family
Standard forms
Standard Cresian
Dialects
Official status
Official language in Republic of Cresia

Cresian is a Kelosian language spoken in the region of Cresia.

History[]

Kelosian was brought into the region of Cresia after it attained its status as a global lingua franca. It supplanted languages previously spoken by the native Cresii and in most parts of Crystaldeep. Cresian, however, has retained a pre-Kelosian influence as a substratum.

Old Cresian[]

Blue Glass Arrow Main article: Old Cresian

Old Cresian, also called Ancient Cresian or Vendo-Cresian, was a dialect of Old Vendian. Old Vendian itself was an Arnanian language spoken in Northern Fresca. Old Cresian was the language used during the time of Cresius; it was also the language in which the Mesna was first recorded. This variety of Old Cresian is called Mesnal Cresian.

Old Cresian was the variety adopted by the Kingdom of Cresia for official use; it later evolved into Middle Cresian.

Middle Cresian[]

Blue Glass Arrow Main article: Middle Cresian

Middle Cresian developed during the middle years of the Cresian Empire. As the empire conquered Greater Cresia, people who spoke both distantly-related dialects and unrelated languages came under its rule. As a result, Cresian underwent a drastic development that incorporated properties of other languages.

Middle Cresian was the vernacular spoken by the populace in the later part of the Cresian Empire. A form of Middle Cresian, called Classical Cresian, was the variety used in government and literature; Classical Cresian reintroduced vocabulary and grammar from Mesnal Cresian to Middle Cresian.

Modern Cresian[]

Blue Glass Arrow Main article: Modern Cresian

Modern Cresian, or New Cresian, refers to the currently spoken dialects of Cresian. It developed during the Vendian era and displays some Vendian influence. Modern Cresian is a highly pluricentric language, with no dialect considered as the standard. However, the dialect spoken in Cresiopolis, the former capital of the Cresian Empire, is considered the most important dialect of Cresian on Crystaldeep. On the planet of Cresia, Avanan—and to a lesser extent Belscan—is the most important dialect.

Classification and related languages[]

Cresian is classified within the Kelosian languages. It is quite divergent from Standard Kelosian in grammar, phonology, and vocabulary. It is more closely related to Vendian.

  • Old Cresian, Ancient Cresian, or Vendo-Cresian
  • Middle Cresian
    • Classical Cresian
  • Modern Cresian, or New Cresian
    • Inner Cresian
    • Outer Cresian

Geographical distribution[]

Cresian is the most common language in the region of Cresia. It is also spoken by ethnic Cresians in areas around Cresia. There also are small Cresian émigré communities in Benz, Shallowmarine, and other major cities of Crystaldeep.

Dialects[]

Modern Cresian dialects are classified into Inner Cresian and Outer Cresian.

  • Inner Cresian
    • Fresco-Cresian
      • Various dialects
  • Outer Cresian, or Avano-Belscan
    • Avano-Cresian
      • Avanan
      • Fessan
      • Hartusan
      • Junan
      • Lisean
      • Nixean
      • Vendusan
      • Zinetian
    • Belsco-Cresian
      • Belscan
      • Damacian
      • Enzan
      • Mirsan
      • Ozernan
      • Promean
      • Sernan
      • Theldan

Phonology[]

The phonological system of Cresian has been simplified from the original Kelosian.

Vowels[]

Cresian has five vowels, each with a long and short version.

  • /a/, /aː/
  • /e/, /eː/
  • /i/, /iː/
  • /o/, /oː/
  • /u/, /uː/

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiced b d ɡ
voiceless p t k
aspirated
Affricate voiced (d͡z) (d͡ʑ)
voiceless t͡s (t͡ɕ)
aspirated t͡sʰ (t͡ɕʰ)
Fricative voiced (v) z (ʑ) (ɦ)
voiceless f s (ɕ) h
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Rhotic r
Approximant l j w

Writing system[]

Upper
case
Lower
case
Phonemic
value(s)
Upper
case
Lower
case
Phonemic
value(s)
A a /a/, /aː/ M m /m/
B b /b/ N n /n ~ ŋ/
C c /k/ O o /o/, /oː/
Ch ch /kʰ/ P p /p/
Ç ç /t͡s ~ t͡ɕ/ Ph ph /pʰ/
Çh çh /t͡sʰ ~ t͡ɕʰ/ Qu qu /kw ~ kʷ/
D d /d/ R r /r/
E e /e/, /eː/ S s /s ~ ɕ/
F f /f ~ v/ T t /t/
G g /ɡ/ Th th /tʰ/
H h /h ~ ɦ/, /ʰ/ U u /u ~ w/
I i /i ~ j/ V v /w ~ v/
J j /j/ X x /ks/
L l /l/ Z z /z ~ d͡z ~ ʑ ~ d͡ʑ/

Formal written Cresian[]

Formal written Cresian is closer to Standard Kelosian than colloquial Cresian.

Basic and simplified versions[]

Cresian in general is a simplified version of Kelosian.

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