on a galactic scale

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From the mind of Negatron

This article is a record of the Golden Age of Hollowstar.

Hollowstar Universal Coordinates are a system of weights and measures established by the closed science department of Hollowstar Proper during the Golden Age.

Basic Assumptions[]

  • All non-accelerating reference frames perceive time at the same rate.
  • The beginning of the universe is a single point.

Base Units[]


In Hollowstar Universal Coordinates, time is expressed in proportion to the age of the universe. In order for coordinates to be usable over long periods of time, they must be read in terms of the time that they were stated. This is usually accomplished by giving some known age, such as the age of Negatron. Although the coordinates can officially use any quantity for context or omit the context entirely for short-term use, in practice Negatron's age was a standard throughout most of the Golden Age. The time unit of Hollowstar universal coordinates is the D4.


Velocity is defined in terms of the speed of light, 100000000000 MDU/STU. A normal velocity is always a value less than 1, while an effective velocity can be greater than or equal to the speed of light due to some form of teleportation or space-distortion. The velocity unit of Hollowstar universal coordinates is the subscript 1/4.

Linear Density[]

Linear density is the density of a one-dimensional object. It seldom has meaning in common use, but is used in Hollowstar universal coordinates to derive other units. Linear density is defined in terms of the linear density of a black hole, 5.0026E+25 SMU/MDU. The linear density unit of Hollowstar universal coordinates is the M1, defined as the linear density of a black hole.

Magnetic Density[]

Magnetic density is the ratio of electric charge to mass. Like linear density, it has little meaning in common use, and is used primarily to derive other units. The fundamental unit of magnetic density is the density needed to keep another object of equal magnetic density at a constant distance, represented by the unit E.

Molecular Count[]

Molecular count is the number of molecules in a substance. It is the simplest of Hollowstar's base units, but this is made up for by the cryptic symbol: *mol

Derived Units[]


Distance is defined in terms of time and velocity.

D1=D4 1/4


Mass is defined in terms of linear density and distance.



Charge is defined in terms of magnetic density and mass.



In Hollowstar Universal Coordinates, energy is synonymous with mass, and usually uses the same units, M0. If energy must be differentiated from mass, use M0 1/4 1/4.


Temperature is defined in terms of molecular count and mass (understood to mean energy). 0 M* corresponds to no heat energy.



Area is defined in terms of distance.


Cross-Sectional Density[]

Cross-sectional density is defined in terms of linear density and distance.



Volume is defined in terms of distance.



Density is defined in terms of linear density and area.


Rules for multidimensional units[]

The units Dn, Mn and En can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions by setting the subscript to the number of dimensions. Note that the distance unit Dn can be ambiguous, since it can refer to any combination of space and time dimensions. For values beyond 4, the meaning of the unit must be determined by context.

The Coordinate System[]

Using these units, the scientists of Hollowstar developed a system for describing any location in space-time. The system used a set of four coordinates, oriented by four separate regions.

The First Coordinate[]

The first coordinate, position in time, was expressed defined in units of D4 as the distance from the beginning of the universe.

The Second Coordinate[]

The second coordinate, angle from the center of the universe with the beginning of time as the center of the circle, was expressed in angular units ranging from 0 to 1 representing a distance around the circle. In this system, angle 0 = angle 1 = the center of mass of the universe. The circle was set to pass through the center of Black Hole Inatus with an angle of less than .5 when the third coordinate was 0. As a measure of distance, this coordinate is in units of 2πD1.

The Third Coordinate[]

The third coordinate, angle about the center of universe-beginning of time axis with angle 0 = angle 1 = the angle of Black Hole Inatus, had units equal to . The direction of this coordinate matched the rotation of the most distant part of Inatus from the center of mass of the universe.

The Fourth Coordinate[]

The fourth coordinate, angle about the beginning of time relative to the position defined by the previous two coordinates, was oriented perpendicular to the previous three coordinates in such a way that an observer with coordinates 2 and 3 equal to those of Black Hole Inatus that perceived BP1 to be rotating clockwise would have a positive fourth coordinate close to 0.